In: The SAGE handbook of web history / Niels Brügger... (eds.)

Los Angeles : SAGE, 2019. - P. 42-56


Abstract: Since the founding of the Internet Archive in mid-1990s, approaches to Web archiving have evolved from striving to save all websites to focusing efforts on those dedicated to riveting events (elections and disasters), national heritage and most recently the self in social media. Each approach implies or affords a certain historiography: site-biographical, event-based, national and autobiographical (or selfie) history writing. Having proposed a periodization of the history of web archiving and the kinds of histories implied by each period's dominant approach, the article turns to the so-called 'crisis' in scholarly web archiving use, and proposes a methodological imagination to address it. Among the digital methods put forward to repurpose existing web archives, one may make screencast documentaries about the history of the web, create thematic collections and query them for social history purposes, conjure a past state of the web through historical hyperlink analysis and discover missing materials, and finally examine websites' underlying code allowing for the study of tracking over time. In all the piece calls for inventive methods to invite the further use of web archives.


Roland Mühlenbernd

In: Games, 10 (2019) 1, 5

DOI: 10.3390/g10010005

Abstract: We study a model where agents face a continuum of two-player games and categorize them into a finite number of situations to make sense of their complex environment. Agents need not share the same categorization. Each agent can cooperate or defect, conditional on the perceived category. The games are fully ordered by the strength of the temptation to defect and break joint cooperation. In equilibrium agents share the same categorization, but achieve less cooperation than if they could perfectly discriminate games. All the equilibria are evolutionarily stable, but stochastic stability selects against cooperation. We model agents' learning when they imitate successful players over similar games, but lack any information about the opponents' categorizations. We show that imitation conditional on reaching an intermediate aspiration level leads to a shared categorization that achieves higher cooperation than under perfect discrimination.


Eckehard Olbrich

In: The journal of mathematical sociology, 43 (2019) 2, p. 76-103

DOI: 10.1080/0022250X.2018.1517761 ARXIV:

Abstract: We explore a new mechanism to explain polarization phenomena in opinion dynamics. The model is based on the idea that agents evaluate alternative views on the basis of the social feedback obtained on expressing them. A high support of the favored and therefore expressed opinion in the social environment, is treated as a positive social feedback which reinforces the value associated to this opinion. In this paper we concentrate on the model with dyadic communication and encounter probabilities defined by an unweighted, time-homogeneous network. The model captures polarization dynamics more plausibly compared to bounded confidence opinion models and avoids extensive opinion flipping usually present in binary opinion dynamics. We perform systematic simulation experiments to understand the role of network connectivity for the emergence of polarization.


Sharwin Rezagholi

In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on complexity, future information systems and risk : COMPLEXIS 2018 ; March 20-21, 2018, in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal ; Volume 1

Setúbal (Portugal) : SCITEPRESS, 2018. - P. 113-119

DOI: 10.5220/0006761601130119 ARXIV:

Abstract: This paper employs a novel method for the empirical analysis of political discourse and develops a theoretical model that demonstrates dynamics comparable with the empirical data. Applying a set of binary text classifers based on convolutional neural networks, we label statements in the political programs of the Democratic and the Republican Party in the United Statesa. Extending the framework of the Colonel Blotto game by a stochastic activation structure, we show that, under a simple learning rule, parties show temporal dynamics that resemble the empirical data.


Tiphaine Viard

Matthieu Latapy

Robin Lamarche-Perrin

In: TMA conference 2018 : proceedings of the 2nd network traffic measurement and analysis conference ; Vienna, Austria, June 26-29, 2018

Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, 2018. - P. 1-8

DOI: 10.23919/TMA.2018.8506575 LINK:

Abstract: Precise detection and identification of anomalous events in IP traffic are crucial in many applications. This paper intends to address this task by adopting the link stream formalism which properly captures temporal and structural features of the data. Within this framework we focus on finding anomalous behaviours with the degree of IP addresses over time. Due to diversity in IP profiles, this feature is typically distributed heterogeneously, preventing us to find anomalies. To deal with this challenge, we design a method to detect outliers as well as precisely identify their cause in a sequence of similar heterogeneous distributions. We apply it to a MAWI capture of IP traffic and we show that it succeeds at detecting relevant patterns in terms of anomalous network activity.


Clémence Magnien

Matthieu Latapy

In: Information processing letters, 133 (2018), p. 44-48

DOI: 10.1016/j.ipl.2018.01.006 ARXIV:

Abstract: Link streams model interactions over time, and a clique in a link stream is defined as a set of nodes and a time interval such that all pairs of nodes in this set interact permanently during this time interval. This notion was introduced recently in the case where interactions are instantaneous. We generalize it to the case of interactions with durations and show that the instantaneous case actually is a particular case of the case with durations. We propose an algorithm to detect maximal cliques that improves our previous one for instantaneous link streams, and performs better than the state of the art algorithms in several cases of interest.


Raphael Fournier-S'niehotta

Clémence Magnien

Matthieu Latapy

In: Complex networks IX : proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks ; CompleNet 201 / Sean Cornelius... (eds.)

Cham : Springer, 2018. - P. 233-241

(Springer proceedings in complexity)

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-73198-8_20 ARXIV:

Abstract: Studying IP traffic is crucial for many applications. We focus here on the detection of (structurally and temporally) dense sequences of interactions that may indicate botnets or coordinated network scans. More precisely, we model a MAWI capture of IP traffic as a link streams, i.e., a sequence of interactions (t1,t2,u,v) meaning that devices u and v exchanged packets from time t1 to time t2. This traffic is captured on a single router and so has a bipartite structure: Links occur only between nodes in two disjoint sets. We design a method for finding interesting bipartite cliques in such link streams, i.e., two sets of nodes and a time interval such that all nodes in the first set are linked to all nodes in the second set throughout the time interval. We then explore the bipartite cliques present in the considered trace. Comparison with the MAWILab classification of anomalous IP addresses shows that the found cliques succeed in detecting anomalous network activity.



Abstract: This chapter brings together strands of contemporary political science, social psychology, and literature on the postfordist regime of accumulation, to argue that the current era of political polarization is an expression of transformations in underlying socioeconomic structures, which shifted the dynamics of identity from a homogenizing modernity of mass-consumption, to an accumulation regime that consumes and produces difference.



Abstract: This essay places contemporary platform capitalism in a larger historical trajectory, emphasizing the transformations of control and power with the progression of modernity. It argues that liquidity of modernity means that control becomes increasingly organized in lower ontological stratas: rather than top-down command-and-control, control paradoxically appears bottom-up: the outcomes resulting from a set of underlying rules seemingly only accidentally play in the hands of certain interests. Platform modernity is the result of digitalization coming into this history, enabling the rapid design of emergent control. This puts new epistemological demands on critique, as the study of control increasingly implies disentangling the complex causal pathways of emergent mechanisms. Complexity Science, hailed for its capacity precisely for such disentanglement, has so far proven an inadequate epistemological vehicle for critique-criticized for its tendency to naturalize social phenomena, while disregarding conflict and power differentials. This essay suggests that a path to a much-needed critical complexity science-aimed at laying bare the hidden mechanisms of emergent power-requires repeating Cybernetics' move to a second-order. For only by incorporating reflexitivity can Complexity Science hope to grasp, critique, and change power relations.


In: Review of social economy, 76 (2018) 4, p. 509-534

DOI: 10.1080/00346764.2018.1480796

Abstract: Contemporary economic theory has entered into an era of unprecedented pluralism. Convincing arguments have been presented for the integration of this pluralism, the possibilities for which however rest on questions of ontology. This paper looks at two hubs of pluralist research, complexity economics and heterodox economics, to evaluate the possibilities for an integration. Complexity economics constitutes an ontological broadening of neoclassicism, but is based on an implicit and incomplete social ontology. Heterodox economics has been argued to be systematized by a critical realist ontology, but has been criticized for limits in the operationalization of this ontology. An ontological merge is sketched, resulting in Complex Realist economics, which is argued to be capable of resolving the 'confused state' of complexity economics, providing the heterodox tradition with the necessary methodologies to study the phenomena that it theorizes, and constituting a consistent ontological foundation for an 'interested pluralism'.


In: PLoS one, 13 (2018) 9, e0203958

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203958

Abstract: The viral spread of digital misinformation has become so severe that the World Economic Forum considers it among the main threats to human society. This spread have been suggested to be related to the similarly problematized phenomenon of 'echo chambers', but the causal nature of this relationship has proven difficult to disentangle due to the connected nature of social media, whose causality is characterized by complexity, non-linearity and emergence. This paper uses a network simulation model to study a possible relationship between echo chambers and the viral spread of misinformation. It finds an 'echo chamber effect': the presence of an opinion and network polarized cluster of nodes in a network contributes to the diffusion of complex contagions, and there is a synergetic effect between opinion and network polarization on the virality of misinformation. The echo chambers effect likely comes from that they form the initial bandwagon for diffusion. These findings have implication for the study of the media logic of new social media.


Justus Uitermark

Petter Törnberg


Abstract: This study examines differences in endorsement networks on Twitter amongst parliamentarians in 23 different countries. It draws upon a database that tracks all Twitter activity and Twitter interactions of members of parliament from 23 different countries. This article serves to introduce this dataset and provide a first look on the patterns that it reveals. We focus on the network patterns that emerge from the politicians' retweets, and find that generally speaking, politicians are fiercely loyal to their party: they mostly retweet fellow party members. As a consequence, clusters identified through community detection generally coincide with party membership. However, there are also important variations between the countries in terms of the degree of partisanship and patterns of conflict. We construct a typology to capture such differences in political coalitions and divisions.


Fabien Tarissan

Jean-Loup Guillaume

In: Complex networks and their applications VI : proceedings of complex networks 2017 ; the sixth international conference on complex networks and their applications / Chantal Cherifi... (eds.)

Cham : Springer, 2018. - P. 278-289

(Studies in computational intelligence ; 689)

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-72150-7_23 LINK:

Abstract: This study proposes ComSim, a new algorithm to detect communities in bipartite networks. This approach generates a partition of nodes by relying on similarity between the nodes in terms of links towards nodes. In order to show the relevance of this approach, we implemented and tested the algorithm on 2 small datasets equipped with a ground-truth partition of the nodes. It turns out that, compared to 3 baseline algorithms used in the context of bipartite graph, ComSim proposes the best communities. In addition, we tested the algorithm on a large scale network. Results show that ComSim has good performances, close in time to Louvain. Besides, a qualitative investigation of the communities detected by ComSim reveals that it proposes more balanced communities.


Richard Rogers

In: Social media and society, 4 (2018) 1, p. 1-13

DOI: 10.1177/2056305118764427

Abstract: The article builds upon critical border studies for the study of the European migration crisis that take into account the digital, both in terms of telecommunications infrastructure and media platforms. In putting forward an approach to migration studies with digital devices, here the emphasis is shifted from 'bordering' to 'routing'. First, the current analytical situation is sketched as one where the 'connective' route is contrasted to the 'securitised' one, made by European policy and monitoring software. Subsequently, we ask, how are connective migrant routes being made into accounts and issues in social media? Two case studies are presented, each describing routing in terms of the distinctive accounts made of migrant journeying. In the first, routes are seen from the point of view of its curation in Getty Images, and in particular of the images privileged by its social layer. In the image collection, the 'sanitised route' (as we call it) gradually leads to a soft landing in Europe, cleansed of anti-refugee sentiment. In the second, we ask how camps and borders are problematized from the point of view of the traveler using TripAdvisor. In the 'interrupted tourist route,' would-be visitors are concerned with a Europe made unsafe, thereby rerouting their own journeys on the basis of social media commenting. We conclude with reflection about the advantages of employing social media in migration and border studies for the study of 'media journeys' as routes from multiple vantage points, developing the idea that route-work also can be understood as platform-work.


Laurent Beauguitte

In: Quantitative semiotic analysis / Dario Compagno (ed.)

Cham : Springer, 2018. - P. 171-189

(Lecture notes in morphogenesis)

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-61593-6_9

Abstract: Together with politics, international news is often considered to be one of the most prestigious fields of journalism. However, making international news attractive is increasingly difficult. Today, one of the main strategies employed by journalists consists in mentioning individuals in the news. The reader is supposed to identify with the mentioned individual(s), and the story is expected to be more successful as a consequence. This paper investigates the interest of using quali-quantitative content analysis to study the semiotics of international news. We analyse six daily newspapers from three developed countries and examine three complementary aspects of the relation between individuals and international news: the level of personification, the type of individual mentioned and the geographical scale to which individuals is connected.


Marta Severo

Paolo Furia

In: AI and society : the journal of human-centred systems and machine intelligence, Vol. not yet known, pp. not yet known

DOI: 10.1007/s00146-018-0856-2 LINK:

Abstract: Today, there is an emerging interest for the potential role of hermeneutics in reflecting on the practices related to digital technologies and their consequences. Nonetheless, such an interest has neither given rise to a unitary approach nor to a shared debate. The primary goal of this paper is to map and synthetize the different existing perspectives to pave the way for an open discussion on the topic. The article is developed in two steps. In the first section, the authors analyze digital hermeneutics 'in theory' by confronting and systematizing the existing literature. In particular, they stress three main distinctions among the approaches: (1) between 'methodological' and 'ontological' digital hermeneutics; (2) between data- and text-oriented digital hermeneutics; and (3) between 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' credos in digital hermeneutics. In the second section, they consider digital hermeneutics 'in action', by critically analyzing the uses of digital data (notably tweets) for studying a classical object such as the political opinion. In the conclusion, we will pave the way to an ontological turn in digital hermeneutics. Most of this article is devoted to the methodological issue of interpreting with digital machines. The main task of an ontological digital hermeneutics would consist instead in wondering if it is legitimate, and eventually to which extent, to speak of digital technologies, or at least of some of them, as interpretational machines.


In: International journal of communication, 12 (2018), p. 450-472


Abstract: Klout scores and similar are often called 'vanity metrics' because they measure and display performance in (what is referred to as) the 'success theater' of social media. The notion of vanity metrics implies a critique of metrics concerning both the object of measurement as well as their capacity to measure unobtrusively or only to encourage performance. While discussing that critique, the article, however, focuses mainly on how one may consider reworking the metrics. In the research project I call 'critical analytics,' the proposal is to repurpose 'alt metrics' scores and other engagement measures for social research, and seek to measure the 'otherwise engaged,' or other modes of engagement (than vanity) in social media such as dominant voice, concern, commitment, positioning and alignment, thereby furnishing digital methods with a conceptual and applied research agenda concerning online metrics.


In: PArtecipazione e COnflitto : PACO = PArticipation and COnflict, 11 (2018) 2, p. 557-570

DOI: 10.1285/i20356609v11i2p557

Abstract: Social media data as source for empirical studies have recently come under renewed scrutiny, given the widespread deletion of Russian disinformation pages by Facebook as well as the suspension of Alt Right accounts by Twitter. Missing data is one issue, compounded by the fact that the 'archives' (CrowdTangle for Facebook and Gnip for Twitter) are also owned by the companies. Previously questions revolved around the extent to which corporate data collected for one purpose (e.g., advertising) could be employed by social science for another (e.g., political engagement). Social media data also could be said to be far from 'good data', since the platforms not only change and introduce new data fields ('reactions' on Facebook), but also increasingly narrow what is available to researchers for privacy reasons. Profound ethical issues were also put on display recently during the Cambridge Analytica scandal, as science became implicated in the subsequent 'locking down' of social media data by the corporations. How to approach social media data these days?


In: Theoretical computer science, Vol. not yet known, pp. not yet known

DOI: 10.1016/j.tcs.2018.12.009 ARXIV:

Abstract: Graph compression is a data analysis technique that consists in the replacement of parts of a graph by more general structural patterns in order to reduce its description length. It notably provides interesting exploration tools for the study of real, large-scale, and complex graphs which cannot be grasped at first glance. This article proposes a framework for the compression of temporal graphs, that is for the compression of graphs that evolve with time. This framework first builds on a simple and limited scheme, exploiting structural equivalence for the lossless compression of static graphs, then generalises it to the lossy compression of link streams, a recent formalism for the study of temporal graphs. Such generalisation relies on the natural extension of (bidimensional) relational data by the addition of a third temporal dimension. Moreover, we introduce an information-theoretic measure to quantify and to control the information that is lost during compression, as well as an algebraic characterisation of the space of possible compression patterns to enhance the expressiveness of the initial compression scheme. These contributions lead to the definition of a combinatorial optimisation problem, that is the Lossy Multistream Compression Problem, for which we provide an exact algorithm.


Justus Uitermark

Petter Törnberg


Abstract: This is a study on the diffusion of novel scientific ideas. We examine how scholarly communities mediate diffusion in the academic landscape. As a case study, we analyze the diffusion of a specific scientific idea, namely the 'Strength of Weak Ties' hypothesis, introduced by Granovetter in his 1973 paper. Using Web of Science data, we construct a network of scholars who referenced Granovetter's paper. By combining topic modeling, network analysis and close reading, we show that the diffusion network features communities of scholars who interpret and use Granovetter's hypothesis in distinct ways. Such communities collaboratively interpret Granovetter's hypothesis to amend it to their specific perspectives and interests. Our analysis further shows that communities are clustered around figureheads, i.e., scholars who are central within their communities and perform pivotal roles in translating the general hypothesis into their specific field. The larger implication of our study is that scientific ideas change as they spread. We argue that the methodology presented in this paper has potential beyond the scientific domain, particularly in the study of the diffusion of opinions, symbols, and ideas.


Rym Baccour

Matthieu Latapy

In: Complex networks and their applications VI : proceedings of complex networks 2017 ; the sixth international conference on complex networks and their applications / Chantal Cherifi... (eds.)

Cham : Springer, 2018. - P. 166-177

(Studies in computational intelligence ; 689)

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-72150-7_14 ARXIV: LINK:

Abstract: Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency attracting a lot of interest both from the general public and researchers. There is an ongoing debate on the question of users' anonymity: while the Bitcoin protocol has been designed to ensure that the activity of individual users could not be tracked, some methods have been proposed to partially bypass this limitation. In this article, we show how the Bitcoin transaction network can be studied using complex networks analysis techniques, and in particular how community detection can be efficiently used to re-identify multiple addresses belonging to a same user.


Marco LiCalzi


Abstract: We revisit the Nash bargaining model and axiomatize a procedural solution that maximizes the probability of successful bargaining. This probability-based approach nests both the standard and the ordinal Nash solution, and yet need not assume that bargainers have preferences over lotteries or that choice sets are convex. We consider both mediator-assisted bargaining and standard unassisted bargaining. We solve a long-standing puzzle and offer a natural interpretation of the product operator underlying the Nash solution. We characterize other known solution concepts, including the egalitarian and the utilitarian solutions.


Eckehard Olbrich


Abstract: A multi-level model of opinion formation is presented which takes into account that attitudes on different issues are usually not independent. In the model, agents exchange beliefs regarding a series of facts. A cognitive structure of evaluative associations links different (partially overlapping) sets of facts to different political issues and determines an agents' attitudinal positions in a way borrowed from expectancy value theory. If agents preferentially interact with other agents that hold similar attitudes on one or several issues, this leads to biased argument pools and polarization in the sense that groups of agents selectively belief in distinct subsets of facts. Besides the emergence of a bi-modal distribution of opinions on single issues that most previous opinion polarization models address, our model also accounts for the alignment of attitudes across several issues along ideological dimensions.


Petter Törnberg

In: Futures : the journal of policy, planning and futures studies, 95 (2018), p. 118-138

DOI: 10.1016/j.futures.2017.11.001 LINK:

Abstract: Traditional scientific policy approaches and tools are increasingly seen as inadequate, or even counter-productive, for many purposes. In response to these shortcomings, a new wave of approaches has emerged based on the idea that societal systems are irreducibly complex. The new categories that are thereby introduced - like 'complex' or 'wicked' - suffer, however, by a lack of shared understanding. We here aim to reduce this confusion by developing a meta-ontological map of types of systems that have the potential to 'overwhelm us': characteristic types of problems, attributions of function, manners of design and governance, and generating and maintaining processes and phenomena. This permits us, in a new way, to outline an inner anatomy of the motley collection of system types that we tend to call 'complex'. Wicked problems here emerge as the product of an ontologically distinct and describable type of system that blends dynamical and organizational complexity. The framework is intended to provide systematic meta-theoretical support for approaching complexity and wickedness in policy and design. We also points to a potential causal connection between innovation and wickedness as a basis for further theoretical improvement.


Petter Törnberg

In: Biological theory, Vol. not yet known, pp. not yet known

DOI: 10.1007/s13752-018-0313-y

Abstract: Despite remarkable empirical and methodological advances, our theoretical understanding of the evolutionary processes that made us human remains fragmented and contentious. Here, we make the radical proposition that the cultural communities within which Homo emerged may be understood as a novel exotic form of organism. The argument begins from a deep congruence between robust features of Pan community life cycles and protocell models of the origins of life. We argue that if a cultural tradition, meeting certain requirements, arises in the context of such a "social protocell," the outcome will be an evolutionary transition in individuality whereby traditions and hominins coalesce into a macroscopic bio-socio-technical system, with an organismal organization that is culturally inherited through irreversible fission events on the community level. We refer to the resulting hypothetical evolutionary individual as a "sociont." The social protocell provides a preadapted source of alignment of fitness interests that addresses a number of open questions about the origins of shared adaptive cultural organization, and the derived genetic (and highly unusual) adaptations that support them. Also, social cooperation between hominins is no longer in exclusive focus since cooperation among traditions becomes salient in this model. This provides novel avenues for explanation. We go on to hypothesize that the fate of the hominin in such a setting would be mutualistic coadaptation into a part-whole relation with the sociont, and we propose that the unusual suite of derived features in Homo is consistent with this hypothesis.


Gothenborg, Sweden : Chalmers University of Technology, 2017. - VI, 422 p.

(Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola ; 4215)

Zugleich: Gothenburg, Chalmers University of Technology, Dissertation

ISBN 978-91-7597-534-4


Abstract: This thesis engages with questions on the boundary between what has traditionally been understood as social and natural. The introductory essay contextualizes the specific contributions of the included papers, by noting and exploring a reinvigoration of 'naturalism' (the notion of a continuity between the human realm and the rest of natural phenomena) under the banner of Complexity Science. This notion is put under explicit light, by revisiting the age-old question of naturalism and connecting ideas in complexity science with the work of e.g. Roy Bhaskar, Mario Bunge, William Wimsatt, and David Lane. A philosophical foundation for a complexity science of societal systems is thereby sketched, taking the form of an integrative and methodologically pluralist 'complex realism'. The first two papers provide a theoretical perspective on the distinction between social and natural: Paper I notes that societal systems combine two qualities that are commonly referred to as complexity and complicatedness into an emergent quality that we refer to as 'wickedness', and that is fundamentally and irreducibly different from either quality in isolation. This explains the recalcitrance of societal systems to the powerful approaches that exist for dealing with both of these qualities in isolation, and implies that they indeed ought to be treated as a distinct class of systems. Paper II uses the plane spanned by complexity and complicatedness to categorize seven different system classes, providing a systematic perspective on the study of societal systems. The suggested approach to societal systems following from these conclusions is exemplified by three studies in different fields and empirical contexts. Paper III combines a number of theories that can be seen as responses to wickedness, in the form of evolutionary developmental theories and theories of societal change, to develop a synthetic theory for cultural evolution. Paper IV exemplifies how simulation can be integrated with social theory for the study of emergent effects in societal systems, contributing a network model to investigate how the structural properties of free social spaces impact the diffusion of collective mobilization. Paper V exemplifies how digital trace data analysis can be integrated with qualitative social science, by using topic modeling as a form of corpus map to aid critical discourse analysis, implying a view of formal methods as aids for qualitative exploration, rather than as part of a reductionist approach.


In: Internet histories : digital technology, culture and society, 1 (2017) 1/2, p. 160-172

DOI: 10.1080/24701475.2017.1307542

Abstract: Among the conceptual and methodological opportunities afforded by the Internet Archive, and more specifically, the WayBack Machine, is the capacity to capture and 'play back' the history a web page, most notably a website's homepage. These playbacks could be construed as 'website histories', distinctive at least in principle from other uses put to the Internet Archive such as 'digital history' and 'internet history'. In the following, common use cases for web archives are put forward in a discussion of digital source criticism. Thereafter, I situate website history within traditions in web historiography. The particular approach to website history introduced here is called 'screencast documentaries'. Building upon Jon Udell's pioneering screencapturing work retelling the edit history of a Wikipedia page, I discuss overarching strategies for narrating screencast documentaries of websites, namely histories of the Web as seen through the changes to a single page, media histories as negotiations between new and old media as well as digital histories made from scrutinising changes to the list of priorities at a tone-setting institution such as


In: The datafied society : studying culture through data / Mirko Tobias Schäfer... (eds.)

Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press, 2017. - P. 75-94

DOI: 10.5117/9789462981362 LINK:

Abstract: The chapter starts with a short summary of what we consider to be five central challenges concerning the recent move towards Digital Methods. We then interrogate David Berry's concept of 'digital Bildung' as a means of facing these challenges. Our goal in this discussion is, maybe paradoxically, to move the spotlight from 'the digital' and programming, to the plethora of concepts and knowledges mobilized in digital tools. To this end, we discuss three examples that allow us to both concretise and complicate the debate about what kind of skill set is needed by digital scholars.


Maurice Tchuente

Matthieu Latapy

In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on web information systems and technologies : Volume 1 WEBIST ; April 25-27, 2017, in Porto, Portugal / Tim A. Majchrzak... (eds.)

Setúbal, Portugal : SciTePress, 2017. - P. 268-275

DOI: 10.5220/0006288202680275 LINK:

Abstract: Recommender systems are an answer to information overload on the web. They filter and present to customer, a small subset of items that he is most likely to be interested in. Since user's interests may change over time, accurately capturing these dynamics is important, though challenging. The Session-based Temporal Graph (STG) has been proposed by Xiang et al. to provide temporal recommendations by combining long-and short-term preferences. Later, Yu et al. have introduced an extension called Topic-STG, which takes into account topics extracted from tweets' textual information. Recently, we pushed the idea further and proposed Content-based STG. However, in all these frameworks, the importance of links does not depend on their arrival time, which is a strong limitation: at any given time, purchases made last week should have a greater influence than purchases made a year ago. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing Time Weight Content-based STG, in which we assign a time-decreasing weight to edges. Using Time-Averaged Hit Ratio, we show that this approach outperforms all previous ones in real-world situations.


Tiphaine Viard

Clémence Magnien


Abstract: Graph theory provides a language for studying the structure of relations, and it is often used to study interactions over time too. However, it poorly captures the both temporal and structural nature of interactions, that calls for a dedicated formalism. In this paper, we generalize graph concepts in order to cope with both aspects in a consistent way. We start with elementary concepts like density, clusters, or paths, and derive from them more advanced concepts like cliques, degrees, clustering coefficients, or connected components. We obtain a language to directly deal with interactions over time, similar to the language provided by graphs to deal with relations. This formalism is self-consistent: usual relations between different concepts are preserved. It is also consistent with graph theory: graph concepts are special cases of the ones we introduce. This makes it easy to generalize higher-level objects such as quotient graphs, line graphs, k-cores, and centralities. This paper also considers discrete versus continuous time assumptions, instantaneous links, and extensions to more complex cases.


Marco LiCalzi

Massimo Warglien


Abstract: We study strategic interaction between agents who distill the complex world around them into simpler situations. Assuming agents share the same cognitive frame, we show how the frame affects equilibrium outcomes. In one-shot and repeated interactions, the frame causes agents to be either better or worse off than if they could perceive the environment in full detail: it creates a fog of cooperation or a fog of conflict. In repeated interaction, the frame is as important as agents' patience in determining the set of equilibria: for a fixed discount factor, when all agents coordinate on what they perceive as the best equilibrium, there remain significant performance differences across dyads with different frames. Finally, we analyze some tensions between incremental versus radical changes in the cognitive frame.


Florent Coriat

Lionel Tabourier

In: ASONAM 2017 : proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/ACM international conference on advances in social networks analysis and mining 2017 / Jana Diesner... (eds.)

New York : ACM, 2017. - P. 667-674


Abstract: International audience; The ability of a node to relay information in a network is often measured using betweenness centrality. In order to take into account the fact that the role of the nodes vary through time, several adaptations of this concept have been proposed to time-evolving networks. However, these definitions are demanding in terms of computational cost, as they call for the computation of time-ordered paths. We propose a definition of centrality in link streams which is node-centric, in the sense that we only take into account the direct neighbors of a node to compute its centrality. This restriction allows to carry out the computation in a shorter time compared to a case where any couple of nodes in the network should be considered. Tests on empirical data show that this measure is relatively highly correlated to the number of times a node would relay information in a flooding process. We suggest that this is a good indication that this measurement can be of use in practical contexts where a node has a limited knowledge of its environment, such as routing protocols in delay tolerant networks.


Remy Cazabet

In: Complex networks VIII : proceedings of the 8th Conference on Complex Networks ; CompleNet 2017 / Bruno Goncalves... (eds.)

Cham : Springer, 2017. - P. 81-92

(Springer proceedings in complexity)

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54241-6_7 LINK:

Abstract: International audience; The analysis of dynamic networks has received a lot of attention in recent years, thanks to the greater availability of suitable datasets. One way to analyse such dataset is to study temporal motifs in link streams , i.e. sequences of links for which we can assume causality. In this article, we study the relationship between temporal motifs and communities, another important topic of complex networks. Through experiments on several real-world networks, with synthetic and ground truth community partitions, we identify motifs that are overrepresented at the frontier - or inside of - communities.


Pierre Borgnat

Pablo Jensen

In: Complex networks VIII : proceedings of the 8th Conference on Complex Networks ; CompleNet 2017 / Bruno Goncalves... (eds.)

Cham : Springer, 2017. - P. 47-55

(Springer proceedings in complexity)

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-54241-6_4 LINK:

Abstract: Null models have many applications on networks, from testing the significance of observations to the conception of algorithms such as community detection. They usually preserve some network properties, such as degree distribution. Recently, some null-models have been proposed for spatial networks, and applied to the community detection problem. In this article, we propose a new null-model adapted to spatial networks, that, unlike previous ones, preserves both the spatial structure and the degrees of nodes. We show the efficacy of this null-model in the community detection case on synthetic networks.


Lionel Tabourier

Matthieu Latapy

In: ASONAM 2017 : proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/ACM international conference on advances in social networks analysis and mining 2017 / Jana Diesner... (eds.)

New York : ACM, 2017. - P. 935-942


Abstract: A link stream is a sequence of triplets (t, u, v) meaning that nodes u and v have interacted at time t. Capturing both the structural and temporal aspects of interactions is crucial for many real world datasets like contact between individuals. We tackle the issue of activity prediction in link streams, that is to say predicting the number of links occurring during a given period of time and we present a protocol that takes advantage of the temporal and structural information contained in the link stream. We introduce a way to represent the information captured using different features and combine them in a prediction function which is used to evaluate the future activity of links.